Fresh Questions About Oxytocin as the ‘Love Hormone’ Behind Pair Bonding

Removing the Oxytocin Receptor Does Not Interfere with Monogamy or Giving Birth

By Robin Marks

Three scientists in lab coats and face masks prepare a maze for a study that involves voles.
Devanand Manoli, MD, PhD, studies the effects of oxytocin, the molecule behind pair bonding. He works with Psychiatry Postdoctoral Scholars Ruchira Sharma, PhD, (left) and Kristen Berendzen, MD, PhD, as they assemble partitions in a maze for video recording voles in the lab. Photo by Barbara Ries

Turning a decades-old dogma on its head, new research from scientists at UC San Francisco and Stanford Medicine shows that the receptor for oxytocin, a hormone considered essential to forming social bonds, may not play the critical role that scientists have assigned to it for the past 30 years.

In the study, appearing Jan. 27, 2023 in Neuron, the team found that prairie voles that were bred without oxytocin receptors showed the same monogamous mating, attachment, and parenting behaviors as regular voles. In addition, females without oxytocin receptors gave birth and produced milk, though in smaller quantities, than ordinary female voles.

The results indicate that the biology underlying pair bonding and parenting aren’t purely dictated by the receptors for oxytocin, sometimes referred to as the “love hormone.”

“While oxytocin has been considered ‘Love Potion No. 9,’ it seems that potions 1 through 8 might be sufficient,” said psychiatrist Devanand Manoli, MD, PhD, a senior author of the paper and member of the UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences. “This study tells us that oxytocin is likely just one part of a much more complex genetic program.”

Oxytocin has a Smaller Role for Voles

A graphic representation of hexagons with protruding lines, indictating a protein or receptor structure. One structure is magenta, and the other is white. Both rest on a pink background

Prairie voles, one of the few mammalian species known to form lifelong monogamous relationships, can help us understand the biology of social bonds.

Researchers found that voles without oxytocin receptors could still form monogamous bonds with their mates, give birth within a regular timeframe, and lactate.

These findings could point to a significantly smaller role for oxytocin in social bonding.


CRISPR Voles Pack a Surprise

Because prairie voles are one of the few mammalian species known to form lifelong monogamous relationships, researchers study them to better understand the biology of social bonding.

Studies in the 1990s using drugs that prevent oxytocin from binding to its receptor found that voles were unable to pair bond, giving rise to the idea that the hormone is essential to forming such attachments.

The current project emerged from shared interests between Manoli and co-senior author and neurobiologist Nirao Shah, MD, PhD, then at UCSF and now at Stanford Medicine. Shah had been interested in the biology of oxytocin and social attachment in prairie voles since teaching about the oxytocin studies decades earlier. Manoli, who wanted to investigate the neurobiology of social bonding, joined Shah’s lab in 2007 as a postdoctoral scholar.

For this study, 15 years in the making, the two applied new genetic technologies to confirm if oxytocin binding to its receptor was indeed the factor behind pair bonding. They used CRISPR to generate prairie voles that lack functional oxytocin receptors. Then, they tested the mutant voles to see whether they could form enduring partnerships with other voles.

To the researchers’ surprise, the mutant voles formed pair bonds just as readily as normal voles.

“The patterns were indistinguishable,” said Manoli. “The major behavioral traits that were thought to be dependent on oxytocin – sexual partners huddling together and rejecting other potential partners as well as parenting by mothers and fathers – appear to be completely intact in the absence of its receptor.”

Labor and Lactation

Even more surprising for Manoli and Shah than the pair bonding was the fact that a significant percentage of the female voles were able to give birth and provide milk for their pups.

Oxytocin is likely to have a role in both birth and lactation, but one that is more nuanced than previously thought, Manoli said. Female voles without receptors proved perfectly capable of giving birth on the same timeframe and in the same way as the regular animals, even though labor has been thought to rely on oxytocin.

The results help to clear up some of the mystery surrounding the hormone’s role in childbirth: Oxytocin is commonly used to induce labor but blocking its activity in mothers who experience premature labor isn’t better than other approaches at halting contractions.

When it came to producing milk and feeding pups, however, the researchers were taken aback. Oxytocin binding to its receptor has been considered essential for milk ejection and parental care for many decades, but half of the females were able to nurse and wean their pups successfully, indicating that oxytocin signaling plays a role, but it is less vital than previously thought.

“This overturns conventional wisdom about lactation and oxytocin that’s existed for a much longer time than the pair bonding association,” said Shah. “It’s a standard in medical textbooks that the milk letdown reflex is mediated by the hormone, and here we are saying, ‘Wait a second, there’s more to it than that.’”

Hope for Social Connection

Manoli, Shah, and lead author Kristen Berendzen, MD, PhD, focused on understanding the neurobiology and molecular mechanisms of pair bonding because it is thought to hold the key to unlocking better treatments for psychiatric conditions, such as autism and schizophrenia, that interfere with a person’s ability to form or maintain social bonds.

Over the past decade, much hope was pinned on clinical trials using oxytocin to address those conditions. But those results were mixed, and none has illuminated a clear path to improvement.

The researchers said their study strongly suggests that the current model – a single pathway or molecule being responsible for social attachment – is oversimplified. This conclusion makes sense from an evolutionary perspective, they said, given the importance of attachment to the perpetuation of many social species.

“These behaviors are too important to survival to hinge on this single point of potential failure,” said Manoli. “There are likely other pathways or other genetic wiring to allow for that behavior. Oxytocin receptor signaling could be one part of that program, but it’s not the be-all-end-all.”

The discovery points the researchers down new paths to improving the lives of people struggling to find social connections.

“If we can find the key pathway that mediates attachment and bonding behavior,” Shah said, “We’ll have an eminently druggable target for alleviating symptoms in autism, schizophrenia, and many other psychiatric disorders.”

Authors: Additional authors include: Ruchira Sharma, Rose Larios, Nastacia Goodwin, Michael Sherman and Isidero Espineda of UCSF, Maricruz Alvarado Mandujano, YiChao Wei, Srinivas Parthasarthy and Joseph Knoedler of Stanford, and Forrest Rogers, Trenton Simmons, Adele Seelke, Jessica Bond, and Karen Bales of UC Davis, and Annaliese Beery of UC Berkeley.

Funding: This work was supported by NIH grants R01MH123513, R01MH108319, DP1MH099900 and R25MH060482, NSF grant, 1556974, and philanthropy. For details, see the study.